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Conference Papers Year : 2018

Live Enrolment for Identity Documents in Europe


Digital image alterations (morphing) of identity document photos is a major concern and may potentially allow citizens with malicious intent to enrol for identity document(s) later to be used also by another individual. Taking the photo in the application office – live enrolment – can address this issue. However, this is a break with tradition and entails a sizeable overhaul in the public sector, which can be reluctant to change and often lacks the necessary formal methods that ensure a smooth transition. The objective of this paper is to map the main barriers and drivers related to live enrolment based on theoretical research and interviews conducted with high-ranking officers at passport authorities in Estonia, Kosovo, Norway and Sweden. These countries have successfully switched to live enrolment. The main driver for live enrolment has been increased security; for Estonia, user convenience was important and was behind the decision of keeping alternative application processes for the citizens around. The absence of legacy systems makes it easier to implement public sector innovations, such as live enrolment. Behind the successful implementation is proper risk management, covering technological, political and organisational risks. Finally, the research results indicate varying experiences, obstacles, cultural differences and trade-offs, emphasizing the need to understand barriers and drivers in a contextualised way.
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Dates and versions

hal-01961517 , version 1 (20-12-2018)





Tarmo Kalvet, Henrik Karlzén, Amund Hunstad, Marek Tiits. Live Enrolment for Identity Documents in Europe. 17th International Conference on Electronic Government (EGOV), Sep 2018, Krems, Austria. pp.29-39, ⟨10.1007/978-3-319-98690-6_3⟩. ⟨hal-01961517⟩
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